The Research

Define proficient reading Vaessen, A. A., & Blomert, L. (2010). Long-term cognitive dynamics of fluent reading development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology105(3), 213-231
Brain scans Pugh, K. R. et al. (2000). Functional neuroimaging studies of reading and reading disability (developmental dyslexia). Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews,6(3), 207-213. Simos, P.G. et al (2002). Dyslexia-specific brain activation profile becomes normal following successful remedial training. Neurobiology58:1203–1213.
Rarely catch up Deshler, D. D., Palincsar, A. S., Biancarosa, G., & Nair, M. (2007). Informed choices for struggling readers: A research-based guide to instructional programs and practices. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
National Reading Panel (NRP). (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on
reading and its implications for reading instruction. Washington,DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
National reading assessments National Center for Education Statistics. (2009). National Assessment of Educational Progress: An overview of NAEP. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Dept. of Education
Malmgren, K. W., & Trezek, B. J. (2017). Literacy Instruction for Secondary Students With Disabilities. Focus on Exceptional Children,41(6).
Fluency Barrier Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2008). Paying attention to reading: The neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Development and Psychopathology,20(04), 1329.
Get stuck in basic skills for years Kilpatrick, D. (2015) Essentials of Assessing, Preventing, and Overcoming Reading Difficulties John Wiley & Sons.
Exceptionally complex spoken and written language 
Randerson, J.  (2001) English is toughest European language to read.
Traps the majority of teens and adults Blau, V., et al (2009). Reduced Neural Integration of Letters and Speech Sounds Links Phonological and Reading Deficits in Adult Dyslexia. Current Biology,19(12), 1064.
Kruidenier, John (2002). Research-Based Principles for Adult Basic Education Reading Instruction. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy, Partnership for Reading.
Ferrer, Emilio, et al. “Achievement Gap in Reading Is Present as Early as First Grade and Persists through Adolescence.” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 167, no. 5, 2015.
Phonemic awareness and auditory processing Dufor, O., et al. “Top-down Processes during Auditory Phoneme Categorization in Dyslexia A PET Study.” NeuroImage, vol. 34, no. 4, 2007, pp. 1692–1707.
Excessive attention on decoding L evy, B.A ., B. Abello, and L. Lysynchuk (1997). “Transfer from word training to reading in context Gains in fluency and comprehension.” Learning Disability Quarterly, 2 0, 1 7 3 – 1 8 8.
  1. Phoneme Proficiency
Fundamentally a listening language process Dawes, P. et al. (2009). Temporal auditory and visual motion processing of children diagnosed with auditory processing disorder and dyslexia. Ear Hear. 30, 675–686. 
Stojanovik, V.  &  Riddell, P. (2008) Expressive versus receptive language skills in specific reading disorder, Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics,22:4-5, 305-310.
White-Schwoch et al. (2015). Auditory Processing in Noise: A Preschool Biomarker for Literacy. PLOS Biology13(7). doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002196
Christmann, et al. (2015). Evidence for a General Auditory Processing Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia From a Discrimination Paradigm Using Speech Versus Nonspeech Sounds Matched in Complexity. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research58(1), 107–121.
Cause of reading difficulties into adulthood Ramus, F., White, S. & Frith, U. Weighing the evidence between competing theories of dyslexia. Developmental Science 9, 265–269 (2006).
Amitay, S., Ahissar, M., & Nelken, I. (2002). Auditory Processing Deficits in Reading Disabled Adults. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology,3(3),
Ahissar M., Protopapas, A., Reid, M., & Merzenich, M. M. (2000). Auditory processing parallels reading abilities in adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,97(12), 6832-6837.
302-320. Also see Malmgren (above)
Phonological confusion Ramus, F., & Szenkovits, G. (2008). What Phonological Deficit? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology61(1), 129–141.
Hard to discriminate See Ramus (above)
Chinnery, D. (1985). Learning to read and discriminate phonemes. Australian Journal of Psychology,37(3), 269-279.  
Essentials of Assessing, Preventing and Overcoming Reading Difficulties See Kilpatrick (above)
Regardless of age Shankweiler, D, Lundquist, E, Dreyer, LG, & Dickinson, CC 1996, Reading and spelling difficulties in high school students: Causes and consequences, Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 8, 267-294.
Advanced phonemic awareness See Kilpatrick, D. (2015) above p.303-304.
Phoneme proficiency Kilpatrick, D. (2016) Equipped for Reading Success, p.41. Casey & Kirsch Publishers
Working on the speech and print issues separately Harm, M. W., Mccandliss, B. D., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2003). Modeling the Successes and Failures of Interventions for Disabled Readers. Scientific Studies of Reading7(2), 155–182.
  1. Attention
20 and 45% of dyslexics Germanò, E., Gagliano, A. & Curatolo, P. Comorbidity of ADHD and Dyslexia. Developmental Neuropsychology 35, 475–493 (2010).
Especially listening attention Serrallach et al. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children. Frontiers in Neuroscience
10, (2016).
Gregg et al. (2008). The Validity of a Battery of Phonemic and Orthographic Awareness Tasks for Adults With and Without Dyslexia and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Remedial and Special Education,29(3), 175-190.
Profoundly compromises reading Child et al.  (2018). A Cognitive Dimensional Approach to Understanding Shared and Unique Contributions to Reading, Math, and Attention Skills. Journal of Learning Disabilities,52(1), 15-30.
Groot et al. (2016). Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children With or Without Reading Disabilities and/or ADHD. Journal of Learning Disabilities,50(2), 168-179.
Kofler et al. (2018). Do Working Memory Deficits Underlie Reading Problems in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,47(3), 433-446.
Paying Attention to Reading See Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2008) above
Attention is equal in importance to decoding and fluency Mohl et al. (2015). Neural dysfunction in ADHD with Reading Disability during a word rhyming continuous performance Task. Brain and Cognition, 99, 1-7.
Selectively attending McCandliss, B. D., Sandak, R., Beck, I., & Perfetti, C. (2003). Focusing attention on decoding for children with poor reading skills: Design and preliminary tests of the Word Building intervention. Scientific Studies of Reading. 7(1), 75-105.
If attention isn’t finely focused progress is slowed Turker et al. (2019). Cognitive and Behavioural Weaknesses in Children with Reading Disorder and AD(H)D. Scientific Reports9(1).
Arnett, et al.  (2017). Explaining the sex difference in dyslexia. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry58(6), 719–727.
Harvard researcher Ellen Langer Langer, E. J. (2016). The power of mindful learning. Boston, MA: Da Capo Lifelong Books.
Minimal contrast words See McCandliss 2003) above
  1. Orthographic Mapping
Fluency Fraga González G, Žarić G, Tijms J, Bonte M, Blomert L, van der Molen MW (2015) A Randomized Controlled Trial on The Beneficial Effects of Training Letter-Speech Sound Integration on Reading Fluency in Children with Dyslexia. PLoS ONE 10(12): e0143914
Meaningful words are effortlessly retrieved from memory Ehri, L. C. (2014). Orthographic Mapping in the acquisition of sight word reading, spelling memory, and vocabulary learning, Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(1), 5- 21
Phoneme maps Ehri, L. C. (2005). Learning to Read Words: Theory, Findings, and Issues. Scientific Studies of Reading9(2), 167–188.
Mapping provides a direct link Ehri, L. C. (2005). Learning to Read Words: Theory, Findings, and Issues. Scientific Studies of Reading9(2), 167–188.
Allowing regular and irregular words Ehri, L.C. (2005) above
Only a few encounters See Kilpatrick (2015) above
Ability to recognize a vast array of spelling Vaessen, A. et al.  (2010). Cognitive Development of Fluent Word Reading Does Not Qualitatively Differ Between Transparent and Opaque Orthographies. Journal of Educational Psychology. 102. 827-842.
Activates the visual word recognition areas Yoncheva, Yuliya N., et al. “Auditory Selective Attention to Speech Modulates Activity in the Visual Word Form Area.” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 20, no. 3, Jan. 2009, pp. 622–632.
  1. Active Learning
Self-teaching model for reading Cunningham AE, Perry KE, Stanovich KE, Share DL. Orthographic learning during reading: examining the role of self-teaching. J Exp Child Psychol. 2002 Jul;82(3):185-99.
Share, D. L. (1995). Phonological recoding and self-teaching: Sine qua non of reading acquisition. Cognition,55(2), 151-218.
Tens of thousands of words Stahl, Stephen A. (1999). Vocabulary development. Brookline, MA: Brookline Books
Prerequisites for mapping Kilpatrick, D. (2015) Essentials of Assessing, Preventing, and Overcoming Reading Difficulties John Wiley & Sons.
Active learning Lynch, J. (2017, June 22). What does research say about active learning? Retrieved from
Retrieval practice Morano, S. (2019). Retrieval Practice for Retention and Transfer. Teaching Exceptional Children,51(6), 436-444.
Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L. (2008). The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning. Science,319(5865), 966-968.
Halpern, D. F., & Hakel, M. D. (2003, July). Applying the science of learning. Change, 36–41
Interleaved Taylor & Rohrer, (2010). The effect of interleaving practice. Applied Cognitive Psychology
Distributed or spaced manner Karpicke, J. D., & Bauernschmidt, A. (2011). Spaced retrieval: Absolute spacing enhances learning regardless of relative spacing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition,37(5), 1250-1257.
Bransford, J., Brown, A., & Cocking, R. (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. pp. 99.
  1. Authentic Comprehension
Comprehension is not a skill Kamhi, A. (2007). Knowledge deficits: the true crisis in education. ASHA Leader, 12 (7), 28–29.
Only a few strategies Daniel T. Willingham. & Gail Lovette (2014). Can Reading Comprehension be Taught? ID Number: 17701
Simple view of reading Catts, Hugh W. “The Simple View of Reading: Advancements and False Impressions.” Remedial and Special Education, vol. 39, no. 5, 2018, pp. 317–323.
Catts, H., Adlof, S., and Weismer, S. (2006). Language deficits in poor comprehenders: A case for the simple view of reading. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49, 278–293.
Stories have a “privileged status” Willingham, Daniel. (2004) “The Privileged Status of Story.” American Educator
Inferences Elleman, A. M. (2017). Examining the impact of inference instruction on the literal and inferential comprehension of skilled and less skilled readers: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Educational Psychology109(6), 761–781.

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